One example of market disturbances would be the need to rent accommodation for office and residential purposes, not just for expatriates, but also for locally engaged staff, in response to a refugee situation.Increased construction activity results, but this is usually accompanied by increases in rent, benefiting those who are property owners, but adversely affecting the poor and those on fixed incomes, such as government officers.The smaller vessels on the AFRA scale, the General Purpose (GP) and Medium Range (MR) tankers, are commonly used to transport cargos of refined petroleum products over relatively shorter distances, such as from Europe to the U. A GP tanker can carry between 70,000 barrels and 190,000 barrels of motor gasoline (3.2-8 million gallons) and an MR tanker can carry between 190,000 barrels and 345,000 barrels (8-14.5 million gallons).Long Range (LR) class ships are the most common in the global tanker fleet, as they are used to carry both refined products and crude oil.They may cause inflationary pressures on prices and depress wages.In some instances, they can significantly alter the flow of goods and services within the society as a whole and their presence may have implications for the host country's balance of payment and undermine structural adjustment initiatives.The global crude oil and refined product tanker fleet uses a classification system to standardize contract terms, establish shipping costs, and determine the ability of ships to travel into ports or through certain straits and channels.
The Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) and Ultra-Large Crude Carrier (ULCC) were added as the global oil trade expanded and larger vessels provided better economics for crude shipments.VLCCs are responsible for most crude oil shipments around the globe, including in the North Sea, home of the crude oil price benchmark Brent.A VLCC can carry between 1.9 million and 2.2 million barrels of a WTI type crude oil.These massive vessels can carry around 2 million barrels to 3.7 million barrels of crude oil.
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER'S PROGRAMMESTANDING COMMITTEE6 January 1997 6th Meeting I. Since the late 1970s, the international community has been well aware of the severe impact that large scale refugee populations can have on the social, economic and political life of host developing countries. It also brought into sharp relief the uneven response of the international community to such impacts.(See Annex 1: ). The highest refugee concentrations are in some of the poorest countries in the world.
No government of a low income country is prepared to contract loans or reallocate its previous development funds to programmes designed for, or required because of, large numbers of refugees on their land.