Besides Mongolian, or "Central Mongolic", other languages in the Mongolic grouping include Dagur, spoken in eastern Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and in the vicinity of Tacheng in Xinjiang; the Shirongolic subgroup Shira Yugur, Bonan, Dongxiang, Monguor, and Kangjia, spoken in Qinghai and Gansu regions; and the possibly extinct Moghol of Afghanistan.) proposes that the Mongolic family is a member of a larger, now discredited Altaic family that would also include the Turkic and Tungusic, and usually Koreanic languages and Japonic languages as well.The following description is based primarily on the Khalkha dialect as spoken in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia's capital.Though phonological and lexical studies are comparatively well developed, The status of certain varieties in the Mongolic group—whether they are languages distinct from Mongolian or just dialects of it—is disputed.There are at least three such varieties: Oirat (including the Kalmyk variety) and Buryat, both of which are spoken in Russia, Mongolia, and China; and Ordos, spoken around Inner Mongolia's Ordos City. For example, the influential classification of Sanžeev (1953) proposed a "Mongolian language" consisting of just the three dialects Khalkha, Chakhar, and Ordos, with Buryat and Oirat judged to be independent languages.
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The use of Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, has witnessed periods of decline and revival over the last few hundred years.The Mongolian vowel system also has rounding harmony.Length is phonemic for vowels, and each of the seven phonemes occurs short or long.Phonetically, short are expressed as ⟨o⟩ and ⟨u⟩ (this is also the case in the nonphonological sections of this article).
However, for modern Mongolian phonology, it seems more appropriate to instead characterize the two vowel-harmony groups by the dimension of tongue root position.
The phonologies of other varieties such as Ordos, Khorchin, and even Chakhar, differ considerably.